In addition to wind/gusts, corrosive agents from rain or air, the drastic change of temperatures, and exposure to sunlight/UV radiation can all deteriorate door closer and gate closer hinge.
Salt spray test is universally accepted as the yardstick for corrosion resistance:
1) In BS EN 1935:2002 (Single-axis hinges)
Hinges are graded 5 classes based on resistance to salt spray.
2) BS EN 1670:2007 (Building hardware. Corrosion resistance. Requirements and test methods)
Requirements for corrosion resistance, ranging from 24 hours to 480 hours of salt spray testing, are explicitly listed.
3) BS EN ISO 9227:2017(Corrosion tests in artificial atmospheres. Salt spray tests)
Also covers the tools and procedures needed for conducting salt spray test.
In regions where gates and pools are common, regulation for gate closer hinge are legally advised and sometimes necessary.